Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Introduction to Ethics, Logic and Ethics & Animals 17
Overview.. 17
Readings. 17
Moral Questions. 21
What the Question Is Not: Not “Morally Right,” but Morally Permissible and/or Morally Obligatory 23
What the Questions Also Is Not: Not (Necessarily) Animal “Rights” 25
Legal Rights: Not the Issue. 25
Moral Rights: Not Necessarily the Issue. 26
Some Basic Concepts about Arguments: Introduction to Logic. 26
Moral Principles as Premises: Introduction to Ethics. 27
Religion and Ethics: A Brief Comment 31
Introduction to Animal Ethics. 32
Discussion Questions. 32

Chapter 2: What Are (Some) Animals Like? Animal Minds and Harms to Animals 35
Overview.. 35
Readings. 35
Being Specific About Species. 37
How Do We Know? Arguments from Analogy & Inference to the Best Scientific Explanation 38
A Source of Doubts: Necessary Conditions for Having a Mind. 40
Discussion Questions. 40

Chapter 3: In Defense of Animals: Some Moral Arguments. 43
Overview.. 43
Readings. 43
General Theories and Particular Cases. 45
Arguments from Paradigm Cases: Inference to the Best Moral Explanation 45
Sufficient Conditions for Taking Someone’s Interests Seriously 47
Again, the Issue is Not (Necessarily) Animal “Rights”. 48
Discussion Questions. 50

Chapter 4: Objections to Defenses of Animals and Defending Animal Use 53
Overview.. 53
Readings. 53
General Theories and Particular Cases. 55
Necessary Conditions for Taking Someone’s Interests Seriously: Cases Against Animals 56
Finding Relevant Differences from Arguments from Paradigm Cases: Inference to Better Moral Explanations?. 56
Common Invalid Arguments. 57
Making the Discussion Concrete. 58
Discussion Questions. 58

Chapter 5: Wearing and Eating Animals. 61
Overview.. 61
Readings. 61
Fur and Food. 67
Personal Challenges and Logic. 67
Harms to Animals (and Humans): The Facts. 68
Factory Farming vs. Vegetarianism vs. Veganism vs. “Humane” Animal Agriculture vs.?? 69
“Painless” and “Humane” Killing. 70
Discussion Questions. 71

Chapter 6: Experimenting on Animals; Animals in Education 73
Overview.. 73
Readings. 73
Science Does Not Answer Moral Questions. 77
Theoretical Foundations and Unprincipled Responses. 77
“Benefits” Arguments. 77
“Necessity” Arguments. 79
“No Alternatives” Arguments. 80
“Painless” and “Humane” Killing, Again. 80
Logic and Keeping Cool 80
Discussion Questions. 81

Chapter 7: Pets / Companion Animals; Zoos, Hunting, Racing, and other Uses of Animals 83
Overview.. 83
Readings. 83
“Pets” & Pet “Ownership” vs. Companion Animals & Animal Guardians 85
Ends and Means. 86
Discussion Questions. 87

Chapter 8: Activism for Animals. 89
Overview.. 89
Readings. 89
Criticisms or Complaints about (Some) Activists Have No Implications for the Morality of Animal Use 91
“Welfarism” & “Welfarists” versus “Animal Rights” & “Abolitionists”: Ends and Means 92
Animal Advocates Promoting Animal Use?. 94
Illegal Actions. 95
Violent Actions. 96
Discussion Questions. 97

Recommended Further Reading: 99

Bonus Essay: Abortion and Animal Rights: Does Either Topic Lead to the Other?

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